19 Ağustos 2014 Salı

The Benchmark between the Famous Leadership Theories Upon the Gender Roles


There are three famous leadership theories in which the gender role can be mentioned. The theories are stated in the following:

·           XY theory of Douglas Mc Gregor

·           System Four approach of Rennis Likert

·           Immaturity / maturity theory. 

In the theory of Mc Gregor, he insisted on that there are two leader types who are differentiating from each other by the administrative style. X types of leaders see their workers as the people who are not willing to work much. They should be forced to work and should be monitored throughout the working process. Nevertheless, Y types of leaders see their workers as self-confident individuals. They trust them and they think that the workers see the work as a play and they are willing to work. When we remind the masculine characteristics such as “gutsy, fearless, trustworthy, independent, cool, strong, passionate, aggressive and active”, we can conclude that the people who have this kind of characteristics may be emerged as an X type of leader. When we remind the feminine characteristics such as; “compassionate, emotional, weak, passive, dependent, and merciful” we can conclude in that the people who have these characteristics may be also emerged as X type of leader. Because, having a strong feminine characteristic, the person cannot believe in him or herself and he / she may think that he/ she is being deceived by the workers. Nevertheless, a person who is between these characteristics and who has androgynous traits may be emerged as a Y type of leader. Since androgynous people have strong influential (masculine characteristics) and social traits (feminine characteristics), the coordination of the workers will be done effectively. This kind of a leader trusts his / her workers and aim to develop their skills.

After analyzing the theory of Mc Gregor, we can focus on the theory of system four approach created by Likert. Likert supposed that there are four kinds of systems in which leaders or managers take place:

·           The exploitive - authoritative system,

·           The benevolent - authoritative system,

·           The consultative system,

·           The participative - group system, 

In exploitive - authoritative system, the decisions are made by the strong and passionate managers. These managers have masculine characteristics and they think that their influence is coming from their strong authority. They don’t lead their workers to develop their self-confidence. There is no empowerment and personnel support. Due to this, we can conclude that the managers don’t have feminine characteristics. In benevolent - authoritative system, the managers are still strong decision making centers. They are generally taking decisions by not often asking their subordinates. Nevertheless, they may need group participation in order to handle some issues. In this type of system, the managers or leaders have strong masculine characteristics, where they have very little feminine characteristics. Especially they are specialized in assigning work and controlling but the level of relationship inside the company in very limited. The third system of Likert is known as the consultative system. In this system the participation of the workers to the decisions are more visible. Nevertheless, the decision making center is mainly the administration and although the opinions of the subordinates are taken into consideration, the level of acceptance is still low. In this system we can realize that the masculine characteristics are still high. But there is a visible increase in the feminine type of behavior. The last and the optimum system type is the participative - group system. In this system the authority and the responsibility of the subordinates are equalized. The subordinates are seen as important idea creating centers. Their opinions are assessed clearly and their participation to the decisions is seen important. The leaders have strong trust to their subordinates and they influence and direct them to open door policies and continuous improvement. In this style of leadership, the masculine characteristics of the leaders are seen to be as strong as the feminine characteristics. The social relationships and the influence of the leaders on the subordinates are very high. We can say that in the last system of Likert the leaders should have androgynous traits in order to coordinate subordinates both in decision making and in working process.

The last theory of leadership in which the effects of sex role are seen, is the theory of immaturity and maturity theory of Chris Arygis. He had observed the individual development by the help of the leaders. When we summarized the finding of Arygis, we can see that the characteristics of leaders in this development.

·          First finding was the moving of individuals from a passive state to a state of increasing activity. To achieve such a development, the subordinate should be motivated and directed throughout the development process. To motivate a subordinate a high interpersonal relationship must be maintained. Thus, the subordinates must be directed and coordinated by a leader who has high social traits.

·          Individuals develop from a state of dependency upon others to a state of relative independence. To achieve such kind of a change, the leaders should support and empower their subordinates. The leaders must emphasize on the trust of the administration to the subordinates work. Afterwards, the workers’ self-confidence will be improved. This kind of development can be provided by a leader who has motivational, influential and social skills.

·          Individuals behave in only a few ways, but after growing they are capable of behaving in many ways. This is related to the training of the individuals by the leaders. The leaders give them opportunities to develop their original work styles. The empowerment is supported.

·          Individuals are subordinate to everyone, but they move to equal or superior positions with others. The promotions should be supported by the leaders. The individuals should be conscious that if they achieve their own goals, they will be promoted.

In the above list some of the maturity process is listed. It is clearly known that during the development process of the subordinate, they must be supported by the leaders both by theoretically and socially. The leader should be influencing the subordinate in order to make him/her to be improved in certain times. The subordinates may be either warned or congratulated during this development process. After all, we can say that this is visible that, both feminine and masculine characteristics should take place in the development of the employee.

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