18 Ağustos 2014 Pazartesi

Likert’s System Four Approach


In Likert’s System Four approach there are four types of systems in which leaders or managers take place. In these systems there are four ways which are used by the leaders or managers to lead their subordinates.[1] These are stated in the following:[2]
 
The exploitive - authoritative system, where decisions are imposed on subordinates, where motivation is characterized by threats, where high levels of management have great responsibilities but lower levels have virtually none, where there is very little communication and no joint teamwork. In this system we cannot see any real leadership characteristics.
 
The benevolent - authoritative system, where leadership is by a condescending form of master-servant trust, where motivation is mainly by rewards, where managerial personnel feel responsibility but lower levels do not, where there is little communication and relatively little teamwork. This system also does not depend on the leadership principles.
 
The consultative system, where leadership is by superiors who have substantial but not complete trust in their subordinates, where motivation is by rewards and some involvement, where a high proportion of personnel, especially those at the higher levels feel responsibility for achieving organization goals, where there is some communication (both vertical and horizontal) and a moderate amount of teamwork. In this system there are some signals of leadership but it should be emerged.
 
The participative - group system, which is the optimum solution, where leadership is by superiors who have; complete confidence in their subordinates, where motivation is by economic rewards based on goals which have been set in participation, where personnel at all levels feel real responsibility for the organizational goals, where there is much communication, and a substantial amount of cooperative teamwork. This is a complete leadership process. These systems are implemented by the leaders with the help of the subordinates.



[1] David J.Rachman, Michael H.Mescon, Business Today, First Ed., New York: McGraw Hill, 1990, p. 150.

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