18 Ağustos 2014 Pazartesi

Effect of Gender on the Leadership


In the developing countries gender or sex is very important in social activities. According to the culture of the country, public may tailor hard works to the males where easy and basic works to the females. Further, the social environment imposes traditional sexual characteristics and behavior types to the children. The children are growing in the way of their environment’s pre-approved sexual behaviors. Plus, after becoming a four year old child it is expected that a sexual behavior interchange will not occur.[1]

 The role definitions are becoming important in the countries which are seeing males and females as separate polars. Sex role can be defined as, “the behavior of the individual after analyzing the sexual characteristics of his or her sex”.[2] These environments give much importance for these behaviors. Before we start the main issue, following terms should be defined:[3]

Sex: Sex describes the biological differences between men and women, which are universal and determined at birth. 

Gender: Gender refers to the roles and responsibilities of men and women that are created in our families, societies and cultures. The concept of gender also includes the expectations held about the characteristics, attitudes and likely behaviors of both women and men (femininity and masculinity). Gender roles and expectations are learned. They can change over time and they vary within and between cultures.

As mentioned above, social environment has been teaching right sexual behavioral types to the children since their early ages. The children are also learning his or her sexual definitions throughout the following process:[4]

·      Fundamental Sex Identity: (2-3 years) In this phase the child can perceive his or her sexual properties clearly and understands whether he / she is a male or female.

·      Unchangeable Sexuality: In this phase, the child can understand that his or her sex cannot be changed. The child knows that he / she will grow up either as a boy or a girl.

·      Stereotypes of Sexuality: In this phase the child knows that the sex is unchangeable and even if a person imitates the behaviors of the other sex, the child knows that the sex of that person is not changed. 

We know that there are really differences between males and females regarding physical and psychological properties. Nevertheless, the public put these characteristics in strong boundaries and defines a male as; gutsy, fearless, trustworthy, independent, cool, strong, passionate, aggressive and active where the definition of the female stated as; compassionate, emotional, weak, passive, dependent, merciful etc…[5] 

The issues upon which are agreed after the researches and the studies are stated below:[6]

·      Aggressiveness: Males are more aggressive than the females. This characteristic is clear after 2 years from the birth. A research made in USA states that, %90 of the crimes are done by the males.

·      Perception speed: Females are ahead of the males who are at the same age.

·      Oral capabilities: Females are very dominant in this characteristic. They are thinking and practicing better than males.

·      Perceiving the space relationships: Males are slightly a head of the females.

·      Domination: Males are dominant since the grammar school.

·      Self confidence and self respect: Males trust and respect themselves more than females.

·      Maturity speed: Females are getting mature rapidly than the males

·      School grades: Females are a head of males.

·      Empathy: Females are more successful than the males in this concept.

·      Helpfulness: Males are more helpful than females because in some urgent events strong people are more useful.

·      Technology using: Males are a head of the females.

·      Risk taking: Females are more risk averse than the males. Due to this, entrepreneurship is close to the males.


[1] Aytaç Aslan, “Farklı Cinsiyet Rollerinin Bireylerin Uyum Düzeylerine Etkisi”, (Yayınlanmamış Yüksek Lisan Tezi, Hacettepe Üniversitesi SBE, Ankara, 1991), p. 1.
[2] Aslan, p. 3.
[3] Unesco, “Baseline Definitions Of Key Concepts And Terms”,
[4] Haluk Uğur Girginer, “Türk Toplumunda Cinsiyet Rolleri Algısı”, (Yayınlanmamış Yüksek Lisans Tezi, Ege Üniversitesi SBE, 1994), p. 37-38.
[5] Serçin Baykal, “Üniversite Öğrencilerinin Cinsiyet Rolleri İle İlgili Kalıp Yargılarının Bazı Değişkenler Açısından İncelenmesi”, (Yayınlanmamış Doktora Tezi, Hacettepe Üniversitesi SBE, 1998), p. 1.
[6] Yücel, p. 39-40.

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