Douglas McGregor, an American social psychologist, proposed his famous X-Y theory in his book 'The Human Side of Enterprise' in 1960. He had exposed that, there are two types of people. These are classified as X or Y type. X types of managers are more authoritarian and Y types of managers are more participative. These are shown below:
· The average person dislikes work and will avoid it if he/she can.
· Therefore most people must be forced with the threat of punishment to work towards organizational objectives.
· The average person prefers to be directed; to avoid responsibility; is relatively unambitious, and wants security above all else.
· Effort in work is as natural as work and play.
· People will apply self-control and self-direction in the pursuit of organizational objectives, without external control or the threat of punishment.
· Commitment to objectives is a function of rewards associated with their achievement.
· People usually accept and often seek responsibility.
· The capacity to use a high degree of imagination, ingenuity and creativity in solving organizational problems is widely, not narrowly, distributed in the population.
· In industry the intellectual potential of the average person is only partly utilized.
According to the above explanations X type of a person can be a good example for a manager. He / She likes control, forces their staff and thinks that personnel should be directed in order to work properly. However, Y type of a person is showing the characteristics of a leader. He / She believes in trust, support and team work. His / Her staff is supposed to be empowered and self-directing.
 Businessballs, “Douglas Mcgregor - Theory X Y”, http://www.businessballs.com/mcgregor.htm, 06 May 2006.
 Tamer Koçel, İşletme Yönetimi, Eight Ed., İstanbul: Beta, 2001, p. 474.