18 Ağustos 2014 Pazartesi

Mc Gregor’s XY Theory


Douglas McGregor, an American social psychologist, proposed his famous X-Y theory in his book 'The Human Side of Enterprise' in 1960. He had exposed that, there are two types of people. These are classified as X or Y type. X types of managers are more authoritarian and Y types of managers are more participative.[1] These are shown below:[2]


X Type

·      The average person dislikes work and will avoid it if he/she can.

·      Therefore most people must be forced with the threat of punishment to work towards organizational objectives.

·      The average person prefers to be directed; to avoid responsibility; is relatively unambitious, and wants security above all else.


Y Type

·      Effort in work is as natural as work and play.

·      People will apply self-control and self-direction in the pursuit of organizational objectives, without external control or the threat of punishment.

·      Commitment to objectives is a function of rewards associated with their achievement.

·      People usually accept and often seek responsibility.

·     The capacity to use a high degree of imagination, ingenuity and creativity in solving organizational problems is widely, not narrowly, distributed in the population.

·      In industry the intellectual potential of the average person is only partly utilized.


According to the above explanations X type of a person can be a good example for a manager. He / She likes control, forces their staff and thinks that personnel should be directed in order to work properly. However, Y type of a person is showing the characteristics of a leader. He / She believes in trust, support and team work.  His / Her staff is supposed to be empowered and self-directing.



[1] Businessballs, “Douglas Mcgregor - Theory X Y”, http://www.businessballs.com/mcgregor.htm, 06 May 2006.
[2] Tamer Koçel, İşletme Yönetimi, Eight Ed., İstanbul: Beta, 2001, p. 474.

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